The Holy Qu’ran, the final message of Allah, has been revealed so that men can draw their guidance and knowledge from it.
Since its revelation, and by the grace of Allah, this inexhaustible source has not been subject to any alteration both in its meaning and in its slightest letters and signs of vocalization.
Allah vouched for its preservation through the centuries and successive generations:
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ
Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an, and indeed, We will be its guardian. (15:9)
This preservation has occurred in two forms:
- Preservation in writing
- Oral preservation
This last one that matters to us concerns how the Holy Qu’ran was read and reported in great detail.
Thus the Holy Quran was brought to us by reliable transmission chains passing through Allah’s Prophet (peace be upon him) and going back to Allah.
These transmission chains guarantee us the similarity of the Koranic reading from the last link to the first.
The scholars subsequently set up a system of precise rules allowing a good reading of the Holy Qu’ran. This can only be done with the support and supervision of a qualified teacher.
After the Prophet’s death (peace be upon him), Caliph Abu Bakr decided to bring together the dispersed elements of the Holy Qu’ran.
The Koranic text was at that time written on leaves (sahîfa). Abu Bakr ordered the Messenger’s companions to check and verify all these scriptures. Later this first compilation was named mushaf because all the verses of the Holy Qu’ran were compiled in it.
The word mushaf, consequently, designates these combined sheets serving as a support for the Holy Qu’ran.
Therefore, it is incorrect to say: “I read the mushaf” or “I read my little Qu’ran“. But we will rather say: “I read from the mushaf” or “I read the Qu’ran” or “My little mushaf“.
Definition and explanation of the Tajweed rules science
Allah the Almighty says in the Quran:
أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا
Or add to it, and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation. (73:4)
This verse shows us the importance of meditating on the word of Allah. Thus, it can be offered by consulting the Tafseer (explanations of the verses of the Qur’an). Indeed, the Holy Qur’an has not been revealed for us to do recitation without understanding what it means.
أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّـهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا
Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction. (4:82)
Definition of Tajweed rules
The word Tajweed comes from the Arabic root word Jawwada – جَوَّدَة, which means: make better or improve.
In the technical language of Quran scholars, the word Tajweed has two different meanings:
- a good recitation with the right pronunciation
- a recitation mood with an average speed
Goals of Tajweed rule science
When we discuss the Holy Quran, the tajweed is, thus, a science whose goal is to correct your recitation to perfect it. This, by granting each letter its correct point of articulation (makhraj al huruf) and its intrinsic characteristics (sifat al huruf).
It also requires not exerting, showing gentleness to recite the Quran following the Prophet’s tradition (peace be upon Him).
The Tajweed rules science means preserving the tongue from making mistakes while reciting Allah’s book, hoping to get His Satisfaction and Favour upon the reader.
History of Tajweed rules science
The first human being who instructed this science was the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon Him) himself. He got it from the Angel Jibril (peace be upon Him), who received it from Allah the Almighty.
Thus, Allah revealed the Holy Quran with a unique and specific recitation completely different from any other text reading.
The first scholars who wrote down the tajweed rule science theoretical aspects were the Arabic language scholars as Al-Khalil ibn Ahmed al Farahidi and his student Sibawayh.
The four fundamental partis of the Tajweed rules sciences are:
- To learn the point of articulation of the letters (makhraj al huruf).
- To be able to recognise intrinsic characteristics of the letters (sifat al huruf).
- To know the tajweed rules (ahkam Tajweed).
- To study it under the supervision of a qualified teacher.