Exploring Ghunna: Delving into the Nuances of Noon and Meem Letters
1. Nuances and Levels of Ghunna in Arabic Letters
A. In Idgham or Shadda
The most pronounced and elongated form of ghunna is observed in idgham or shadda.
وَمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن مَّاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ
and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain (2:164)
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ
Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind, (114:1)
وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ
Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. (3:144)
B. During Ikhfah
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ
Indeed, We sent the Qur’an down during the Night of Decree. (97:1)
C. With a Sukoon
كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ
How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless, and He brought you to life; (2:28)
بَلْ تُؤْثِرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا
But you prefer the worldly life (87:16)
صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favour, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. (1:7)
كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ
All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, (2:285)
D. Least Intense Ghunna: The Nasalization of Vocalized Meem and Noon (Mutaharika)
وَنَادَىٰ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ أَنْ أَفِيضُوا عَلَيْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّـهُ
And the companions of the Fire will call to the companions of Paradise, “Pour upon us some water or from whatever Allah has provided you.” (7:50)
2. Clarifying the Duration of Ghunna in Noon and Meem with Shadda
A common belief is that the ghunna of noon and meem with shadda lasts for “harakatayn” or the span of two vowels. However, Dr. Aymen Sued, in his chapter on the duration of ghunna, posits that its duration extends beyond this commonly held belief.
In terms of technique:
Ghunna Naqis (Partial Nasalization): The lips should slightly part, akin to the space needed for a leaf to pass through.
Ghunna Kamil (Complete Nasalization): The lips should meet but without excessive pressure to ensure the subsequent letter is articulated accurately.
A note on practice: While many integrate ghunna into their recitation for all letters, it’s essential to ensure the nasal septum is closed during the pronunciation of all letters, exempting meem and noon.
This Tajweed rules lesson has come to a conclusion. Insha’Allah, our next lesson will delve into the intricacies of Noon Sakeena and Tenween.
At the Al-dirassa Institute, we provide an accessible path to mastering Tajweed under the guidance of skilled instructors. Should you wish to pursue this further, we warmly invite you to reach out to us.
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