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The imperfect tense - Arabic free courses

The Imperfect Tense in Arabic - الْفِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعُ

The imperfect tense in Arabic serves a dual purpose, encompassing both the present and future tenses to describe actions in an ongoing, unfinished state. The conjugation of verbs in the imperfect tense is accomplished by appending prefixes and suffixes to the base form, which is derived from the past tense.

 

For instance:

 

 

يَفْعَلُ

 

He does or he will do

 

 

 

1. Consonant Verbs in the Imperfect Tense: A Comprehensive Guide

A. Conjugating فَعَلَ in the Imperfect Tense: The Pattern يَفْعَلُ

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَفْعَلُ

 

He does/ will do

 

 

Dual

 

يَفْعَلانِ

 

They both do/will do

 

 

Plural

 

يَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

They all do/will do

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَفْعَلُ

 

She does/ will do

 

 

Dual

 

تَفْعَلانِ

 

They both do/will do

 

 

Plural

 

يَفْعَلْنَ

 

They all do/will do

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَفْعَلُ

 

You do/ will do

 

 

Dual

 

تَفْعَلانِ

 

You both do/will do

 

 

Plural

 

تَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

You all do/will do

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَفْعَلِيْنَ

 

You do/ will do

 

 

Dual

 

تَفْعَلانِ

 

You both do/will do

 

 

Plural

 

تَفْعَلْنَ

 

 

You all do/will do

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَفْعَلُ

 

I do/ will do

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَفْعَلُ

 

We do/will do

 

 

 

 

In Arabic, the imperfect tense employs specific prefixes, namely ن – أ – ت – ى, which are collectively referred to as the “signs of the present tense” or اَلْمُضارِعُ. These prefixes play a crucial role in indicating actions that are ongoing or anticipated.

 

Furthermore, the imperfect tense utilizes distinctive suffixes depending on the subject of the verb:

 

  • Dual subjects are marked by انِ -َ.
  • Masculine plurals utilize وْنَ -ُ.
  • Feminine plurals are represented by نَ.
  • The second-person feminine singular takes يْنِ -َ.
  • Interestingly, there are no suffixes for the first person, adding a unique dimension to Arabic verb conjugation.

 

Additionally, in verbs following the pattern of فَعَلَ, where the second radical is ع, the second radical in the imperfect tense may bear fatha -َ, kasrah -ِ, or dammah -ُ, introducing subtle variations in pronunciation and meaning. This exemplifies the intricacies of Arabic grammar, particularly in verb formation and conjugation.

 

 

Fatha -َ

 

 

فَتَحَ 

 

He opened

 

 

يَفْتَحُ

 

He opens / will open

 

 

 

 

جَعَلَ

 

He made

 

 

يَجْعَلُ

 

He makes / will make

 

 

 

 

مَسَحَ

 

He wiped

 

 

يَمْسَحُ

 

He wipes / will wipe

 

 

 

 

 

Kasrah -ِ

 

 

ضَرَبَ

 

He hit

 

 

يَضْرِبُ

 

He hits / will hit

 

 

 

 

كَسَبَ

 

He earned

 

 

يَكْسِبُ

 

He earns / will earn

 

 

 

 

عَرَفَ

 

He recognized

 

 

يَعْرِفُ

 

He recognizes / will recognize

 

 

 

 

 

Dammah -ُ

 

 

 

نَصَرَ

He helped

 

 

يَنْصُرُ

 

He helps / will help

 

 

 

 

تَرَكَ

 

He left

 

 

يَتْرُكُ

 

He leaves / will leave

 

 

 

 

عَرَجَ

 

He ascended

 

 

يَعْرُجُ

 

He ascends / will ascend

 

 

 

B. Conjugating فَعِلَ in the Imperfect Tense

In the realm of Arabic verb conjugation, when the verb follows the pattern of فَعِلَ, specifically when the second radical ع carries a kasrah (-ِ), it introduces an interesting dimension to the formation of the imperfect tense (الْمُضارِعُ). In this context, the second radical of the imperfect tense can assume either a fatha (-َ) or a kasrah (-ِ), exemplifying the intricacies and versatility of Arabic verb structures.

 

 

Fatha -َ

 

 

سَمِعَ

 

He listened

 

 

يَسمَعُ

 

He listens / will listen

 

 

 

 

 

شَرِبَ

 

He drank

 

 

يَشْرَبُ

 

He drinks/ will drink

 

 

 

 

عَلِمَ

 

He knew

 

 

يَعْلَمُ

 

He knows / will know

 

 

 

 

 

Kasrah -ِ

 

 

حَسِبَ

 

He thought

 

 

يَحْسِبُ

 

He thinks / will think

 

 

 

Verbs following the pattern of فَعِلَ do not exhibit dammah (-ُ) on the second radical ع in the imperfect tense. However, in the case of verbs conforming to the فَعَلَ pattern, where the second radical carries a dammah, it consistently retains dammah in the imperfect tense conjugation.

 

For illustration:

 

 

بَعُدَ

 

He kept away

 

 

يَبْعُدُ

 

He keeps away/ will keep away

 

 

 

 

حَسُنَ

 

He became good

 

 

يَحْسُنُ

 

He becomes good / will become good

 

 

 

قَرُبَ

 

He approached

 

 

يَقْرُبُ

 

He approaches/ will approach

 

 

 

C. Instances of Consonant Verbs in the Imperfect Tense Found in the Noble Quran

وَيَفْعَلُ اللَّـهُ مَا يَشَاءُ

 

 

 

 

And Allah does what He wills. (14:27)

 

 

 

الَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّـهِ وَلَا يَنقُضُونَ الْمِيثَاقَ

 

 

 

 

Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and do not break the contract, (13:20)

 

 

 

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّـهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ

 

 

 

 

That is because they disbelieved in the verses of Allah and killed the prophets without right. (3:112)

D. The future tense

When the imperfect tense is coupled with س or سَوْفَ, expressions signifying “very soon” or “shortly,” they imbue the imperfect tense with a distinct future tense connotation. These linguistic elements, س and سَوْفَ, are aptly termed “particles of the future.”

 

For instance:

 

سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ 

 

 

 

 

The foolish among the people will say (2:142)

 

 

 

كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

 

 

 

 

No! You are going to know. (102:3)

2. Hamzated Verbs in the Imperfect Tense: A Comprehensive Guide

The hamzated verbs | Arabic free courses

A Hamzated verb is characterized by the utilization of the letter hamza (أ) as the first radical, as exemplified in أَكَلَ: يأْكُلُ. Interestingly, when hamza serves as the initial radical, it does not induce any alteration in the verb’s conjugation. Instead, it adheres to the familiar pattern of فَعَلَ: يَفْعَلُ, showcasing the stability and predictability of this particular verb structure.

A. Conjugating Hamzated Verbs: The Imperfect Tense of أَكَلَ - يَأْكُلُ

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَأْكُلُ

 

He eats/ will eat

 

 

Dual

 

يأْكُلانِ

 

They both eat/will eat

 

 

Plural

 

يَأْكُلُوْنَ

 

They all eat/will eat

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَأْكُلُ

 

She eats/ will eat

 

 

Dual

 

تَأْكُلانِ

 

They both eat/will eat

 

 

Plural

 

يَأْكُلْنَ

 

They all eat/will eat

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَأْكُلُ

 

You eat/ will eat

 

 

Dual

 

تَأْكُلانِ

 

You both eat/will eat

 

 

Plural

 

تَأْكُلُوْنَ

 

You all eat/will eat

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَأْكُلِيْنَ

 

You eat/ will eat

 

 

Dual

 

تَأْكُلانِ

 

You both eat/will eat

 

 

Plural

 

تَأْكُلْنَ

 

You all eat/will eat

 

 

 

1st Person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَئْكُلُ

 

I eat/ will eat

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَأْكُلُ

 

We  eat/will eat

 

 

 

Instances of Hamzated Verbs in the Imperfect Tense Found in the Noble Quran

وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَيَقْتُلُونَ الَّذِينَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْقِسْطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ

 

 

 

 

 and kill the prophets without right and kill those who order justice from among the people (3:21)

 

 

 

وَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا تَأْكُلُونَ وَمَا تَدَّخِرُونَ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ

 

 

 

 

And I inform you of what you eat and what you store in your houses. (3:49)

B. Conjugating Hamzated Verbs: The Imperfect Tense of سَئِلَ - يَسْأَلُ

When the letter hamza (أ) is employed as the second radical, as exemplified in سَئِلَ: يَسْأَلُ, it does not introduce any alterations in the conjugation structure. Instead, it adheres steadfastly to the pattern of فَعَلَ: يَفْعَلُ, underscoring the consistent and predictable nature of this verb construction.

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَسْأَلُ

 

He asks/ will ask

 

 

Dual

 

يَسْأَلانِ

 

 

They both ask/will ask

 

Plural

 

يَسْأَلُوْنَ

 

They all ask/will ask

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَسْأَلُ

 

She asks/ will ask

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْأَلانِ

 

They both ask/will ask

 

 

Plural

 

يَسْأَلْنَ

 

They all ask/will ask

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَسْأَلُ

 

You ask / will ask

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْأَلانِ

 

You both ask/will ask

 

 

Plural

 

تَسْأَلُوْنَ

 

You all ask/will ask

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَسْأَلِيْنَ

 

You ask / will ask

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْأَلانِ

 

You both ask/will ask

 

 

Plural

 

تَسْأَلْنَ

 

You all ask/will ask

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَسْأَلُ

 

I ask / will ask

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَسْأَلُ

 

We ask/will ask

 

 

 

Instances of Hamzated Verbs in the Imperfect Tense Found in the Noble Quran

 

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ

 

 

 

 

And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul.(17:85)

 

 

 

 وَهُمْ لَا يَسْأَمُونَ 

 

 

 

 

And they ask you about the Spirit (Ruh) (41:38)

 

B. Conjugating Hamzated Verbs: The Imperfect Tense of قَرَأَ - يَقْرَأُ

In cases where the letter hamza (أ) is employed as the third radical, as exemplified in قَرَأَ: يَقْرَأُ, it’s important to note that it maintains the same conjugation structure, closely adhering to the pattern of فَعَلَ: يَفْعَلُ. This consistent conjugational behavior showcases the stability of this verb structure.

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَقْرَأُ

 

He reads/ will read

 

 

Dual

 

يَقْرَئَانِ

 

They both read/will read

 

 

Plural

 

يَقْرَءُوْنَ

 

They all read/will read

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَقْرَأُ

 

She reads/ will read

 

 

Dual

 

تَقْرَئانِ

 

They both read/will read

 

 

Plural

 

يَقْرَئْنَ

 

They all read/will read

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَقْرَأُ

 

You read/ will read

 

 

Dual

 

تَقْرَئانِ

 

You both read/will read

 

 

Plural

 

تَقْرَءُوْنَ

 

You all read/will read

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَقْرَئِيْنَ

 

You read/will read

 

 

Dual

 

تَقْرَئانِ

 

You both read/will read

 

 

Plural

 

تَقْرَئْنَ

 

You all read/will read

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَقْرَأُ

 

I read/will read

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَقْرَأُ

 

We read/will read

 

 

 

Instances of Hamzated Verbs in the Imperfect Tense Found in the Noble Quran

فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ

 

 

 

 

Then ask those who read the book (which was revealed) before you (10:94)

 

 

 

اللَّـهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ

 

 

 

 

Allah begins the creation (30:11)

3. Assimilated Verbs in the Imperfect Tense: A Comprehensive Guide

Assimilated verbs - imperfect tense - Arabic free courses

Assimilated verbs, known as الْمِثالُ, constitute one of the three categories of weak verbs, classified based on the positions assumed by the weak letters ا – و – ى within the root word فَعَل.

 

In the case of assimilated verbs, the initial radical is inherently weak, typically represented by و or ى, and these letters effectively substitute the role of ف in the root word. Despite this substitution, the conjugational patterns they follow remain consistent with the standard فَعَلَ pattern, thereby introducing no significant alterations in the conjugation process. This stability in conjugation is a distinguishing characteristic of assimilated verbs.

A. الْمِثالُ الْواوى: Assimilated Verbs with و Substituting the First Radical ف

وَعَدَ – يَعِدُ

 

to promise

 

 

 

 

وَقَفَ – يَقِفُ

 

to stand

 

 

 

 

وَصَلَ – يَصِلُ

 

to reach/arrive

 

 

 

 

وَصَفَ – يَصِفُ

 

to describe/assert

 

 

 

 

 

In the process of constructing the imperfect tense (الْمُضارِعُ), the weak letter و undergoes omission, forming an integral aspect of the conjugation.

 

Now, let’s delve into the conjugation of an assimilated verb in the imperfect tense, exemplified by وَعَدَ – يَعِدُ:

Conjugation of the assimilated verb وَعَدَ

3rd person Masculine

Singular

 

يَعِدُ

 

He promises/will promise

 

 

Dual

 

يَعِدَانِ

 

They both promise/will promise

 

 

Plural

 

يَعِدُوْنَ

 

They all promise/will promise

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَعِدُ

 

She promises/will promise

 

 

Dual

 

تَعِدَانِ

 

They both promise/will promise

 

 

Plural

 

يَعِدْنَ

 

They all promise/will promise

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَعِدُ

 

You promise/will promise

 

 

Dual

 

تَعِدَانِ

 

You both promise/will promise

 

 

Plural

 

تَعِدُوْنَ

 

You all promise/will promise

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَعِدِيْنَ

 

You promise/will promise

 

 

Dual

 

تَعِدَانِ

 

You both promise/will promise

 

 

Plural

 

تَعِدْنَ

 

You all promise/will promise

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَعِدُ

 

I promise/will promise

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَعِدُ

 

We promise/will promise

 

 

 

 

 

Note 1: It is common to find that the second radical in the imperfect tense typically carries a Kasrah. Nevertheless, it’s worth noting that in certain words, the second radical may bear a Fatha instead.  

 

وَهَبَ – يَهَبُ

 

To grant/confer

 

 

 

 

وَضَعَ – يَضَعُ

 

To place/deliver

 

 

 

 

 

B. Conjugating the Assimilated Verb وَهَبَ in the Imperfect Tense: يَهَبُ

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

 

يَهَبُ

He gives/will give

 

 

Dual

 

يَهَبَانِ

 

They both give/will give

 

 

Plural

 

يَهَبُوْنَ

 

They all give/will give

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَهَبُ

 

She gives/will give

 

 

Dual

 

تَهَبَانِ

 

They both give/will give

 

 

Plural

 

يَهَبْنَ

 

They all give/will give

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَهَبُ

 

you give/will give

 

 

 

Dual

تَهَبَانِ

 

You both give/will give

 

 

Plural

 

تَهَبُوْنَ

 

You all give/will give

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَهَبِيْنَ

 

you give/will give

 

 

Dual

 

تَهَبَانِ

 

You both give/will give

 

 

Plural

 

تَهَبْنَ

 

You all give/will give

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَهَبُ

 

I give/will give

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَهَبُ

 

We give/will give

 

 

C. Exception to the Rule: Verb وَجِلَ in Imperfect Tense - يَوْجَلُ

Note 2: An exception to the typical pattern of وَعَدَ is the verb وَجِلَ. In this case, the و is retained in the formation of the imperfect tense, and the conjugation adheres to the consonant pattern يَفْعَلُ, resulting in يَوْجَلُ:

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَوْجَلُ

 

He fears/will fear

 

 

Dual

 

يَوْجَلانِ

 

They both fear/will fear

 

 

Plural

 

يَوْجَلُوْنَ

 

They all fear/will fear

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَوْجَلُ

 

She fears/will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَوْجَلانِ

 

They both fear/will fear

 

 

Plural

 

يَوْجَلْنَ

 

They all fear/will fear

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَوْجَلُ

 

You fear/will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَوْجَلُ

 

You both fear/will fear

 

 

Plural

 

تَوْجَلُوْنَ

 

You all fear/will fear

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَوْجَلِيْنَ

 

You fear/will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَوْجَلُ

 

You both fear/will fear

 

 

Plural

 

تَوجَلْنَ

 

You all fear/will fear

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَوْجَلُ

 

I fear/will fear

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَوْجَلُ

 

You all fear/will fear

 

 

 

C. الْمِثالُ الْيائِى: Assimilated Verbs with ى Substituting the First Radical ف

يَسِرَ – يَيْسَرُ

 

To become easy

 

 

 

 

يَئِسَ – يَيْئَسُ

 

To despair/lose hope

 

 

 

 

يَبِسَ – يَيْبَسُ

 

To dry up

 

 

 

 

Conjugating the Assimilated Verb يَسِرَ in the Imperfect Tense: يَيْسَرُ

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَيْئَسُ

 

He loses hope/will lose hope

 

 

 

Dual

يَيْئَسَانِ

 

They both lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Plural

 

يَيْئَسُوْنَ

 

They all lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَيْئَسُ

 

She loses hope/will lose hope

 

 

Dual

 

تَيْئَسَانِ

 

They both lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Plural

 

يَيْئَسْنَ

 

They all lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَيْئَسُ

 

You lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Dual

 

تَيْئَسَانِ

 

You both lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Plural

 

تَيْئَسُوْنَ

 

You all lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَيْئَسِيْنَ

 

You lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Dual

 

تَيْئَسَانِ

 

You both lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Plural

 

تَيْئَسْنَ

 

You all lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَيْئَسُ

 

I lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَيْئَسُ

 

We lose hope/will lose hope

 

 

4. Hollow Verbs in the Imperfect Tense: A Comprehensive Guide

Hollow verb | imperfect tense - Arabic free courses

Hollow verbs are characterized by the presence of a vulnerable middle radical, typically represented by و or ى, which effectively replaces the middle radical ع. To facilitate smooth pronunciation, the middle letters و or ى are substituted with alif ا in these verbs.

 

Hollow verbs can be classified into two distinct types:

 

  1. Hollow Verbs with the Letter Wa ” و “
  2. Hollow verbs with the letter ya الْأَجْوَفُ الْيائِى

 

In this category, the letter “و” takes the place of the middle radical “ع,” as seen in verbs like قَوَلَ, which transforms into قَالَ through the substitution of “و” for “ع.” Interestingly, the “و” reappears in the formation of the imperfect tense. Here is the conjugation of قَالَ in the imperfect tense: يَقُولُ.

A. Hollow Verbs with the Letter Wa " و "

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَقُولُ

 

He says/ will say

 

 

Dual

 

يَقُولانِ

 

They both say / will say

 

 

Plural

 

يَقُولُونَ

 

They all say / will say

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَقُولُ

 

She says/ will say

 

 

Dual

 

تَقُولانِ

 

They both say / will say

 

 

Plural

 

يَقُلْنَ

 

They all say / will say

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَقُولُ

 

You say/ will say

 

 

Dual

 

تَقُولانِ

 

You both say / will say

 

 

Plural

 

تَقُلُونَ

 

You all say / will say

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَقُولِيْنَ

 

You say/ will say

 

 

Dual

 

تَقُولانِ

 

You both say / will say

 

 

Plural

 

تَقُلْنَ

 

You all say / will say

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَقُولُ

 

I say/ will say

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَقُولُ

 

We  say / will say

 

 

 

In the third person and second person feminine plural forms, the letter “و” is omitted, leading to the conjugations يَقُلْنَ and تَقُلْنَ respectively.

Exception to the Rule: Conjugating خَافَ in the Imperfect Tense

As previously noted, خَافَ (khaafa) serves as an exception to the established rule. Consequently, it does not adhere to the pattern of قَالَ: يَقُولُ.

 

Here is the imperfect tense conjugation of خَافَ: يَخَافُ as follows:

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَخَافُ

 

He fears/ will fear

 

 

Dual

 

يَخَافَانِ

 

 They both fear/ will fear.

 

 

Plural

 

يَخَافُونَ

 

They all fear/ will fear.

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَخَافُ

 

She fears/ will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَخَافَانِ

 

 They both fear/ will fear.

 

 

Plural

 

يَخَفْنَ

 

They all fear/ will fear.

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَخَافُ

 

You fear/ will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَخَافَانِ

 

 You both fear/ will fear.

 

 

Plural

 

تَخَافُونَ

 

You all fear/ will fear.

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَخَافِيْنَ

 

You fear/ will fear

 

 

Dual

 

تَخَافَانِ

 

 You both fear/ will fear.

 

 

Plural

 

تَخَفْنَ

 

You all fear/ will fear.

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَخَافُ

 

I fear/ will fear

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَخَافُ

 

We  fear/ will fear.

 

 

 

In the second person and third person feminine plural forms, you’ll notice that the alif (ا) is omitted, and خ (khaa) takes a fatha (َ) on it, resulting in conjugations like يَخَفْنَ and تَخَفْنَ.

B. Hollow verbs with the letter ya الْأَجْوَفُ الْيائِى

In this scenario, the letter ى (ya) assumes the role of the middle radical, substituting the ع (ayn) in verbs such as بَيَعَ, which transforms into بَاعَ with the elongated alif ا. However, in the past perfect tense, the ى is omitted.

 

In the imperfect tense, the ى reappears, except in the case of the third person and second person feminine plurals. Here is the conjugation of باعَ (baa’a) in the imperfect tense: يَبِيعُ.

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَبِيْعُ

 

He sells/ will sell

 

 

Dual

 

يَبِيْعَانِ

 

They both sell/ will sell

 

 

Plural

 

يَبِيْعُونَ

 

They all sell/ will sell

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَبِيْعُ

 

She sells/ will sell

 

 

Dual

 

تَبِيعَانِ

 

They both sell/ will sell

 

 

Plural

 

يَبِعْنَ

 

They all sell/ will sell

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَبِيْعُ

 

You sell/ will sell

 

 

Dual

 

تَبِيعَانِ

 

You both sell/ will sell

 

 

Plural

 

تَبِيْعُوْنَ

 

You all sell/ will sell

 

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَبِيْعِيْنَ

 

You sell/ will sell

 

 

Dual

 

تَبِيعَانِ

 

You both sell/ will sell

 

 

Plural

 

تَبِعْنَ

 

You all sell/ will sell

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَبِيْعُ

 

I sell/ will sell

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَبِيْعُ

 

We sell/ will sell

 

 

 

 

Note: When dealing with the verb شاءَ (shaa’a), its imperfect tenses will take the form يَشاءُ.

 

 

 

 

5. Defective Verbs in the Imperfect Tense: A Comprehensive Guide

Defective verb | Imperfect tense - Arabic free courses

Defective verbs are characterized by the presence of و (waw) in lieu of the final radical ل (lam) within the root فَعَلَ.

A. الناقِصُ الواوِي: Defective Verbs with و Substituting the Final Radical ل

In the verb دَعَا (da’aa), the letter و (waw) that appears in its spelling is reintroduced during the formation of the imperfect tense. Here is the conjugation of دَعَا (da’aa) in the imperfect tense: يَدْعُو.

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَدْعُوْ

 

He calls/ will call

 

 

Dual

 

يَدْعُوانِ

 

They both call/ will call

 

 

Plural

 

يَدْعُوْنَ

 

They all call/ will call

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَدْعُوْ

 

She calls/ will call

 

 

Dual

 

تَدْعُوانِ

 

They both call/ will call

 

 

Plural

 

يَدْعُوْنَ

 

They all call/ will call

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَدْعُوْ

 

You call/ will call

 

 

Dual

 

تَدْعُوانِ

 

You both call/ will call

 

 

Plural

 

تَدْعُوْنَ

 

You all call/ will call

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَدْعِْيْنَ

 

You call/ will call

 

 

Dual

 

تَدْعُوانِ

 

You both call/ will call

 

 

Plural

 

تَدْعُوْنَ

 

You all call/ will call

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَدْعُوْ

 

I call/ will call

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

 

نَدْعُوْ

We  call/ will call

 

 

 

 

 

Note: It’s noteworthy that the letter و (waw) remains intact in the conjugation, particularly in the second and third-person feminine plurals. In the third person, both masculine and feminine plurals are identical, resulting in يَدْعُوْنَ. Similarly, in the second person, both masculine and feminine plurals are the same, giving us تَدْعُوْنَ.

 

B. الناقِصُ اليَائِي: Defective Verbs with ى Substituting the Final Radical ل

The conjugation of رَمَى (rama) in the imperfect tense is exemplified as follows: يَرْمَي (yarma).

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَرْمِي

 

He throws/ will throw

 

 

Dual

 

يَرْمِيَانِ

 

They both throw/ will throw

 

 

Plural

 

يَرْمُوْنَ

 

They all throw/ will throw

 

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَرْمِي

 

She throws/ will throw

 

 

Dual

 

تَرْمِيَانِ

 

They both throw/ will throw

 

 

Plural

 

يَرْمِيْنَ

 

They all throw/ will throw

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَرْمِي

 

You throw/ will throw

 

 

Dual

 

تَرْمِيَانِ

 

You both throw/ will throw

 

 

Plural

 

تَرْمُوْنَ

 

You all throw/ will throw

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَرْمِيْنَ

 

You throw/ will throw

 

 

Dual

 

تَرْمِيَانِ

 

You both throw/ will throw

 

 

Plural

 

تَرْمِيْنَ

 

You all throw/ will throw

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَرْمِي

 

I throw/ will throw

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَرْمِي

 

We throw/ will throw

 

 

 

C. Conjugating Imperfect Tense: لَقِىَ - يَلْقِي and Note on تَرْمِيْنَ

Note: It’s worth noting that in the imperfect tense, both the second-person feminine singular and plural forms are identical, resulting in تَرْمِيْنَ.

 

Additionally, here is the conjugation of لَقِىَ (laqiya) in the imperfect tense: يَلْقِي (yalqi).

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَلْقَى

 

He meets/ will meet

 

 

Dual

 

يَلْقِيانِ

 

They both meet/ will meet

 

 

Plural

 

يَلْقَوْنَ

 

They all meet/ will meet

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَلْقَى

 

She meets/ will meet

 

 

Dual

 

تَلْقِيانِ

 

They both meet/ will meet

 

 

Plural

 

تَلْقَيْنَ

 

They all meet/ will meet

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَلْقَى

 

You meet/ will meet

 

 

Dual

 

تَلْقِيانِ

 

You both meet/ will meet

 

Plural

 

تَلْقَوْنَ

 

You all meet/ will meet

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَلْقَيْنَ

 

You meet/ will meet

 

 

Dual

 

تَلْقِيانِ

 

You both meet/ will meet

 

 

Plural

 

تَلْقَيْنَ

 

You all meet/ will meet

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَلْقَى

 

I meet/ will meet

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَلْقَى

 

We meet/ will meet

 

 

 

 

 

In this context, it’s important to observe that the second radical carries a kasrah (ِ), resulting in a distinct pattern when compared to the base pattern رَمَى (rama), where the second radical typically bears a fatha (َ).

 

Additionally, it’s noteworthy that both the second-person feminine singular and plural forms are identical, i.e., تَلْقَيْنَ.

D. Irregular Past Tense Conjugations: سَعَى, أَبَى, and نَهَى in the Imperfect Tense

While سَعَى (sa’a), أَبَى (aba), and نَهَى (naha) share the same conjugation pattern as رَمَى (rama) in the past tense, it’s interesting to note that their imperfect tense conjugation follows the pattern of لَقِيَ (laqiya) – يَلْقَى (yalqa).

 

Here are some examples:

 

سَعَى – يَسْعَى

 

To run/service

 

 

 

 

أَبَى – يَأْبَى

 

To refuse

 

 

 

 

نَهَى – يَنْهَى

 

To forbid

 

 

 

 

Conjugating the Imperfect Tense: سَعَى - يَسْعَى

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَسْعَى

 

He strives/ will strive

 

 

Dual

 

يَسْعَيَانِ

 

They both strive/ will strive

 

 

Plural

 

يَسْعَوْنَ

 

They all strive/ will strive

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَسْعَى

 

She strives/ will strive

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْعَيَانِ

 

They both strive/ will strive

 

 

Plural

 

يَسْعِينَ

 

They all strive/ will strive

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَسْعَى

 

You strive/ will strive

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْعَيَانِ

 

You both strive/ will strive

 

 

Plural

 

تَسْعَوْنَ

 

You all strive/ will strive

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَسْعَيْنَ

 

You strive/ will strive

 

 

Dual

 

تَسْعَيَانِ

 

You both strive/ will strive

 

 

Plural

 

تَسْعَيْنَ

 

You all strive/ will strive

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَسْعَى

 

I strive/ will strive

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

نَسْعَى

 

You all strive/ will strive

 

 

 

Conjugating the Imperfect Tense: رَأَى - يَرَى

3rd person masculine

Singular

 

يَرَى

 

He sees/ will see

 

 

Dual

 

يَرَيَانِ

 

They both see/ will see

 

 

Plural

 

يَرَوْنَ

 

They all see/ will see

 

 

 

3rd person feminine

Singular

 

تَرَى

 

She sees/ will see

 

 

Dual

 

تَرَيَانِ

 

They both see/ will see

 

 

Plural

 

يَرَيْنَ

 

They all see/ will see

 

 

 

 

2nd person masculine

Singular

 

تَرَى

 

You see/ will see

 

 

Dual

 

تَرَيَانِ

 

You both see/ will see

 

 

Plural

 

تَرَوْنَ

 

You all see/ will see

 

 

 

2nd person feminine

Singular

 

تَرَيْنَ

 

You see/ will see

 

 

Dual

 

تَرَيَانِ

 

You both see/ will see

 

 

Plural

 

تَرَيْنَ

 

You all see/ will see

 

 

 

 

First-person (masculine/feminine)

Singular

 

أَرَى

 

I see/ will see

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

 

تَرَيْنَ

 

We  see/ will see

 

 



An irregularity is evident in the conjugational pattern of رَأَى (ra’a) – يَرَى (yara).

 

 

Conclusion

This lesson on Arabic nuances concludes here. Insha’Allah, our subsequent session will delve into the past continous in Arabic.

 

 

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