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triliteral derived vers in arabic

Triliteral Derived Arabic Verb - الْفِعْلُ المُجَرَّدُ الثُلاثِي

Introduction

The verb that encompasses additional letter(s) beyond its primary root is termed as الْفِعْلُ الْمَزِيْدُ الثُلاثِي. These verbs stem from the foundational triliteral roots, signifying their origin and complexity in the Arabic linguistic framework.

1. Triliteral root verb - الْفِعْلُ المُجَرَّدُ الثُلاثِي

In the intricate tapestry of the Arabic language, the triliteral root verb, known as الْفِعْلُ المُجَرَّدُ الثُلاثِي, is fundamental. To enrich the language’s lexicon and meet its diverse expression needs, additional letters are incorporated to this base.

 

The act of augmenting the triliteral root verb with prefixes, infixes, or suffixes results in the birth of derived verbs. These derived verbs can either:


1. Retain a semblance to the original root meaning.


2. Transform from a transitive to intransitive nature, and vice versa, among other shifts.

 

For illustration, let’s dissect the verb قَتَلَ (to kill):


1. By introducing a prolonged alif ا after ق, the offshoot verb قَاتَلَ emerges, translating to “engage in combat with someone.”


2. When the verb’s second radical undergoes duplication, it morphs into قَتَّلَ, interpreted as “to slaughter or massacre.”

 

Arabic verbs are categorized into 15 distinct forms. The primary three-lettered form, فَعَلَ, serves as the foundational root, while the subsequent 14 forms are its derivatives:

 

– **Form I**: فَعَلَ – فَعِلَ – فَعُلَ.


– **Form II**: فَعَّلَ – Evolving from Form I with an added letter.


– **Form III**: فَاعَلَ


– **Form IV**: أَفْعَلَ

 

Introducing two letters to Form I yields:

 

– **Form V**: تَفَعَّلَ


– **Form VI**: تَفَاعَلَ


– **Form VII**: انْفَعَلَ


– **Form VIII**: اِفْتَعَلَ


– **Form IX**: إِفْعَلَ

 

Incorporating three letters to the first form, we obtain:

 

– **Form X**: اِسْتَفْعَلَ


– **Form XI**: إِفْعَالَّ

 

Each form holds its unique nuance and usage, reflecting the depth and flexibility of the Arabic language.

2. Table of triliteral verb form-  فَعَّلَ

tri-literal verb form فَعَّلَ - cours d'arabe gratuit en ligne

Derived from the triliteral root, the unique feature of this form is the doubling of its second radical. Notably, the imperfect tense – الْمُضَارِعُ of this pattern is adorned with a dammah -ُ, distinctively setting it apart.

 

Let’s explore the various forms:

 

– **Past Tense**: فَعَّلَ


– **Imperfect Tense**: يُفْعِّلُ


– **Imperative (Command)**: فَعِّل


– **Verbal Noun**: Two patterns emerge – تَفْعِيْلٌ and تَفعِلَةٌ.


– **Active Participle**: مُفَعِّلٌ, denoting someone or something actively engaged in the action.


– **Passive Participle**: مُفَعَّلٌ, referring to the entity the action is being done to.


– **Past Passive**: فُعِّلَ, indicating that the action was done to someone/something in the past.


– **Imperfect Passive**: يُفَعَّلُ, suggesting that the action is or will be done to someone/something.

 

**Points to Note**:

A. Causative Implications of Select Words in This Form

For example:

 

عَلِمَ = عَلَّمَ

 

 To teach (to cause someone to know) – to know.

 

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا 

 

 

And He taught Adam the names – all of them.  (2:31)

B. Utilizing This Form to Amplify the Meaning

Intensifying an action or prolonging its duration can be expressed through this form.

 

قَطَعَ – قَطَّعَ


To cut – To sever into pieces.

 

قَتَلَ – قَتَّلَ


To kill – To massacre or slay extensively.

 

C. Conciseness: Some verbs in this form convey a full meaning in a condensed manner.

كَبَّرَ

 

To say “Allahu akbar.

 

سَبَّحَ

 

To say “SubhanAllah.

D. Transition in Verb Nature: Shifting from intransitive (اللَّازِمُ) to transitive (الْمُتَعَدِّي)

Conversion in Verb Forms: Form I verbs that are intransitive transform into transitive verbs in Form II.

 

نَامَ – نَوَّمَ

 

From “to sleep” to “to make/put to sleep.”

E. Parallel to Triliteral Meaning: In this form, the derived verb retains the essence of its original triliteral root's meaning.

بَدَّلَ – بَدَلَ

 

To change – to change

 

 

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ 

 

 

But those who wronged changed [those words] to a statement other than that which had been said to them, (2:59)

F. Verbs Derived from Nouns

In this form, verbs are derived from nouns.

 

هَوَّدَ


To convert to Judaism (from يَهُودٌ, denoting a Jew)

 

نَصَّرَ


To convert to Christianity (from نَصْرانِّيٌّ, referring to a Christian)

G. The derived form often conveys entirely distinct meanings

For example:

 

سَخَّرَ – سَخِرَ

 

To subjugate – to mock

 

 

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَـٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ

 

 

“Exalted is He who has subjected this to us, and we could not have [otherwise] subdued it. (43:13)

 

 

صَلَى – صَلَّى

 

To pray – to pray

 

كَلِمَ – كَلَّمَ

 

To speak – to injure

H. Constructing the Passive Voice in Past Perfect Tense: Applying Dammah to the First Radical and Kasra to the Second

In the imperfect tense, the present tense marker takes a dammah, while the second radical receives a fatha.

 

In defective verbs, the verbal noun (المَصدَرُ) follows the pattern تَفْعِلَةٌ.

 

For instance:

 

زَكَّى translates to تَزْكِيَةٌ.”

Table of زَكَّى to purify, to clean

Past tense – زَكَّى Imperfect tense – يُزَكِّي Imperative – زَكِّ Verbal noun -تَزْكِيَةٌ Active participle  – مُزَكٍّ Passive participle  – مُزَكًى Past passive  – زُكِّيَ Imperfect passive  – يُزَكَّى

 

 

وَنَجِّنِي مِن فِرْعَوْنَ وَعَمَلِهِ وَنَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

 

 

and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds and save me from the wrongdoing people.” (66:11)

 

 

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

 

 

Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion. (4:120)

 

 

Note: Some verbs, though not defective, have their verbal noun (مَصْدَر) following the pattern تَفْعِلَةٌ.

 

Examples include:

 

تَذْكِيْرٌ – تَذْكِرَةٌ = ذَكَّرَ

 

 

يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ

 

 

reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom (62:2)

 

 

أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا

 

 

Or add to it, and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation. (73:4)

 

 

سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى 

 

 

Exalt the name of your Lord, the Highest, (87:1)

 

 

وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَكَرَّهَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكُفْرَ

 

 

but Allah has endeared to you the faith and has made it pleasing in your hearts and has made hateful to you disbelief (49:7)

 

 

بَلْ جَاءَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَدَّقَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

 

 

Rather, the Prophet has come with the truth and confirmed the [previous] messengers. (37:37)

3. فَاعَلَ - Triliteral Root form

Triliteral Root form فَاعَلَ | arabic free courses

The form فَاعَلَ is derived by inserting an alif – ا between the first and second radicals of the triliteral root. This verb pattern’s imperfect tense typically carries a dammah on its initial radical.

 

Structure of فَاعَلَ:

 

  • Past tense: فَاعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يُفَاعِلُ
  • Imperative: فَاعِلْ
  • Verbal noun: فِعَالٌ or مُفَاعِلَةٌ
  • Active participle: مُفَاعِلٌ
  • Passive participle: مُفَاعَلٌ
  • Past passive: فُوْعِلَ
  • Imperfect
  • passive: يُفَأعِلُ

 

In the passive voice of the past tense for this form, the intervening alif – ا typically changes to a و.

 

Illustration: فُوْعِلَ originates from فَاعَلَ.

 

Key Observations:

 

  1. Verbs in the فَاعَلَ form often depict mutual or reciprocal actions, thus, they are transitive by nature.

     

    For instance:

    • قَتَلَ means “to kill.”
    • قَاتَلَ means “to fight.”

     

    وَكَأَيِّن مِّن نَّبِيٍّ قَاتَلَ مَعَهُ رِبِّيُّونَ كَثِيرٌ translates to “And how many a prophet [fought and] with him fought many religious scholars.” (Quran 3:146)

     

  2. Occasionally, the derived verb can bear a meaning distinct from its root.

     

    For example:

    • بَرَكَ translates to “to kneel or lie down.”
    • بَارَكَ translates to “to bless.”

     

    الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا means “He whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him Our signs.” (Quran 17:1)

     

Case Study:

 

  • Past tense: لَاقَى (He met)
  • Imperfect tense: يُلاقِي (He meets)
  • Imperative: لاقِ (Meet!)
  • Verbal noun: مُلاقَاةٌ (Meeting)
  • Active participle: مُلاقٍ (Meeting, in the act of)
  • Passive participle: مُلاقًى (Met, being met)
  • Past passive: لُوْقِيَ (Was met)
  • Imperfect passive: يُلاقَى (Is being met)

Triliteral Root Pattern فَاعَلَ: Quranic Illustrations

إِنِّي ظَنَنتُ أَنِّي مُلَاقٍ حِسَابِيَهْ 

 

Indeed, I was certain that I would be meeting my account.” (69:20)

 

 

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ

 

Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah  (2:193)

 

 

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ

 

 

Fighting has been enjoined upon you (2:216)

 

 

فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ

 

 

So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. (2:187)

 

 

 وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ

 

 

And whoever strives only strives for [the benefit of] himself. (29:6)

 

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ

 

 

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord (2:258)

 

 

وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا

 

 

And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm (9:107)

 

 

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّـهِ

 

 

When the hypocrites come to you, [O Muhammad], they say, “We testify that you are the Messenger of Allah.” (63:1)

 

وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَىٰ مَا أَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ

 

 

And I do not intend to differ from you in that which I have forbidden you;  (11:88)

4. أَفْعَلَ - Triliteral Root form

the triliteral root form أَفْعَلَ | Arabic free courses

The form أَفْعَلَ is constructed by adding a prefixed hamza أ with a fatha (َ) to the base form فَعَلَ. Contrary to some other forms, this hamza is not the joining hamza (hamzatul wasl); therefore, it retains its pronunciation at all times. The imperfect tense of verbs in this pattern will always carry a dammah (ُ) on the first radical.

 

Table for أَفْعَلَ Pattern:

 

 

Aspect/FormPattern
Past tenseأَفْعَلَ
Imperfect tenseيُفْعِلُ
Imperativeأَفْعِلْ
Verbal nounإِفْعَالٌ
Active participleمُفْعِلٌ
Passive participleمُفْعَلٌ
Past passiveأُفْعِلَ
Imperfect passiveيُفْعَلُ

 

Key Insight:

 

  • The form أَفْعَلَ often imbues verbs with a causative sense, indicating the act of making someone or something undertake the action denoted by the root verb.

 

1. Some words of this form have a causative meaning

Examples to Illuminate the Causative Nature:

 

  1. خَرَجَ means “to exit” or “to go out.”

    • In the form أَفْعَلَ, أَخْرَجَ translates to “to make someone exit” or “to drive out.”
  2. نَزَلَ signifies “to descend.”

    • Transformed to the form أَفْعَلَ, أَنْزَلَ conveys “to bring down” or “to send down.”

subtle variations in meaning due to morphological changes highlight the rich tapestry of the Arabic language and its capacity for nuanced expression.

 

 

وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ ۗ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا

 

 

And with the truth, We have sent the Qur’an down, and with the truth, it has descended. And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. (17:105)

2. Transforming Intransitive Verbs (اللازِمُ) into Transitive Ones (الْمُتَعَدِّي) in Arabic

Examples:

 

  • دَخَلَ – to enter
  • أَدْخَلَ – to make to enter
  • نَسِيَ – to forget
  • أَنْسَي – to make to forget
  • ذَهَبَ – to go
  • أَذْهَبَ – to remove

 

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ

 

 

And they will say, “Praise to Allah, Who has removed from us [all] sorrow (35:34)

3. Occasionally, Verbs in This Form Deviate in Meaning from Their Original Triliteral Roots

Examples:

 

  • قَرَضَ – to cut
  • أَقْرَضَ – to lend
  • لَقِيَ – He met
  • أَلْقَى – to cast down, to fling

 

إِن تُقْرِضُوا اللَّـهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا

 

 

If you loan Allah a goodly loan (64:17)

 

 

قَالَ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا سَحَرُوا أَعْيُنَ النَّاسِ وَاسْتَرْهَبُوهُمْ وَجَاءُوا بِسِحْرٍ عَظِيمٍ 

 

 

He said, “Throw,” and when they threw, they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck terror into them, and they presented a great [feat of] magic. (7:116)

4. Verbs in This Form Derived from Nouns

  • صُبْحٌ – morning
  • أَصْبَحَ – to enter upon morning

 

  • مَساءٌ – evening
  • أَمْسَى – to enter into evening

 

  • ضُحَى – forenoon
  • أَضْحَى – to enter into the forenoon

5. Hollow Verbs and the إِفْعَالَةٌ Verbal Noun Pattern

Examples:

 

  • أَقَامَ = إِقَامَةٌ

 

Table of أَقَأمَ to establish, to straighten:

 

  • Past tense – َقَامَ
  • Imperfect tense – يُقِيْمُ
  • Imperative – أَقِمْ
  • Verbal noun – إِقَامَةٌ
  • Active participle  – مُقِيْمٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُقَامٌ
  • Past passive  – أُقِيْمَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُقَامُ

6. Defective Verbs and the إِفْعَاءٌ Noun Pattern

Example:

 

  • أَوْفَى – إيْفَاءٌ

 

 

Table of أَوْفَى:

 

  • Past tense – َأَوْفَى
  • Imperfect tense – يُوْفِي
  • Imperative – أَوْفِ
  • Verbal noun – إِيْفَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُوْفٍ
  • Passive participle  – مُوْفًى
  • Past passive  – أُوْفِيَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُوْفَى

7. Examples of the Triliteral Root Form أَفْعَلَ in the Holy Quran

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا

 

 

; and do not say to one who gives you [a greeting of] peace “You are not a believer,” (4:94)

 

 

لَاهِيَةً قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّجْوَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا هَلْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ

 

 

With their hearts distracted. And those who do wrong conceal their private conversation, [saying], “Is this [Prophet] except a human being like you?  (21:3)

 

 

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ إِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ

 

 

And We sent not before you, [O Muhammad], except men to whom We revealed [the message] (21:7)

 

 

ثُمَّ صَدَقْنَاهُمُ الْوَعْدَ فَأَنجَيْنَاهُمْ وَمَن نَّشَاءُ وَأَهْلَكْنَا الْمُسْرِفِينَ

 

 

Then We fulfilled for them the promise, and We saved them and whom We willed and destroyed the transgressors. (21:9)

 

 

وَكَمْ قَصَمْنَا مِن قَرْيَةٍ كَانَتْ ظَالِمَةً وَأَنشَأْنَا بَعْدَهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ

 

 

And how many an unjust city have We shattered and produced after it another people. (21:11)

 

 

كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَن يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا

 

 

Every time they want to get out of Hellfire  (22:22)

 

 

وَأَحَلَّ اللَّـهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا

 

 

 But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest (2:275)

 

 

وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ 

 

 

but be not excessive. Indeed, He likes not those who commit excess. (7:31)

 

 

يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّـهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ

 

 

Allah instructs you concerning your children (4:11)

 

 

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

 

 

When his Lord said to him, “Submit,” he said, “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” (2:131)

5. تَفَعَّلَ - triliteral root form

the triliteral root form تَفَعَّلَ| Arabic free courses

A. Overview of the Triliteral Root Form تفَعَّلَ

The تَفَعَّلَ form is derived by adding the prefix Ta ت with a fatha -َ to the root فَعَلَ, and emphasizing the middle radical with a shaddah.

 

Breakdown of the Triliteral Root Form تَفَعَّلَ:

 

  • Past tense: تَفَعَّلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَتَفَعَّلُ
  • Imperative: تَفَعَّلْ
  • Verbal noun: تَفَعُّلٌ
  • Active participle: مُتَفَعِّلٌ
  • Passive participle: مُتَفَعَّلٌ
  • Past passive: تُفُعِّلَ
  • Imperfect passive: يَتَفَعَّلُ

 

This structure emphasizes the action and often imparts a reflexive or intensive sense to the root meaning.

B. Reflexive Nuances of تَفَعَّلَ Derived from فَعَّلَ: Action Reflecting Back to the Subject

Examples:

 

  • عَلَّمَ –  to teach
  • تَعَلَّمَ – to learn
  • فَرَّقّ – to separate
  • تَفَرَّقَ – to be separated
  • فَسَّحَ – to make spacious
  • تَفَسَّحَ – to become spacious

 

إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ تَفَسَّحُوا فِي الْمَجَالِسِ

 

 

when you are told, “Space yourselves” in assemblies, then make space (58:11)

 

 

وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ وَتَبَتَّلْ إِلَيْهِ تَبْتِيلًا 

 

 

And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with [complete] devotion. (73:8)

C. Verbs Derived from Nouns

For example: 

 

  • إثْمٌ – sin
  • تَأَثَّمَ – to shun away from sin

D. Verbs Denoting Progressive Actions

For example:

 

  • جَرَعَ – to swallow, to sip
  • تَجَرَّعَ – to drink sip by sip

 

يَتَجَرَّعُهُ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُسِيغُهُ

 

 

He will gulp it but will hardly [be able to] swallow it. (17:17)

E. Root Verbs in تَفَعَّلَ Form with Entirely New Meanings

For example:

 

  • كَلِمَ – to injure
  • تَكَلَّمَ – to speak
  • صَدَقَ – to speak the truth
  • تَصَدَّقَ – to give charity

 

وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ

 

 

the charitable men and charitable women (33:35)

F. Quranic Examples of the Triliteral Root Form تَفَعَّلَ

 

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا

 

 

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind (2:234)

 

 

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّـهُ

 

 

And do not wish for that by which Allah hs made (4:32)

 

 

لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّـهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ

 

 

That Allah may forgive for you what preceded (48:2)

 

 

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا

 

 

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. (3:103)

 

 

وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ

 

 

And the Day the Hour appears – that Day they will become separated. (30:14)

 

 

رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ

 

 

My Lord, make me an establisher of prayer, and [many] from my descendants. Our Lord, and accept my supplication. (14:40)

 

 

 رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

 

 

Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing. (2:127)

 

 

الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّىٰ 

 

 

He] who gives [from] his wealth to purify himself (92:18)

6. تَفَاعَلَ - triliteral verb form

تَفَاعَلَ vebr form | Arabic free courses

When the prefix ‘ت’ is appended to the Form III ‘فَاعَلَ’, it transforms into ‘تَفَاعَلَ’.

 

Table of تَفَاعَلَ

 

  • Past tense – تَفَاعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَفَاعَلُ
  • Imperative – تًفَاعَلْ
  • Verbal noun – تَفَاعُلٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَفَاعِلٌ
  • Passive participle  – مُتَفَاعَلٌ
  • Past passive  – تُوُوْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُتَفَعَلُ

Point to note:

A. This Form Denotes Collaborative or Mutual Action

Examples:

 

  • حَرَبَ – to fight
  • تَحَارَبَ – to fight each other

 

  • عَاوَنَ – to help
  • تَعَاوَن – to co-operate/to help one another

B. Occurrence of ى as the Third Radical (ل)

Examples:

 

  • تَجَافَى – to turn away from

 

Table of تَفَاعَلَ

 

  • Past tense – تَجَافَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَجَافَى
  • Imperative – تَجَافَى
  • Verbal noun – تَجَافٍ
  • Active participle  – مُتَجَافٍ
  • Passive participle  – مُتَجَافًى
  • Past passive  -تُجُوْفِىَ
  • Imperfect passive  – يُتَجَافَى

 

تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ

 

 

They arise from [their] beds (32:16)

 

 

إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

 

 

 if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis.  (2:232)

C. Examples of the تَفَاعَلَ Verb Form in the Holy Quran

وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ

 

 

 And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. (49:11)

 

 

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ

 

 

And cooperate in righteousness and piety (5:2)

 

 

 إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

 

 

Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience. (103:3)

 

 

 خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ

 

 

The last of it is musk. So for this, let the competitors compete. (83:26)

 

 

 وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِهِمْ يَتَغَامَزُونَ

 

 

And when they passed by them, they would exchange derisive glances. (83:30)

 

 

وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ

 

 

 If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the appointment (8:42)

 

 

وَلَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ 

 

 

and would have disputed in the matter [of whether to fight], (8:43)

 

 

فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ

 

 

But when the two armies sighted each other, he turned on his heels (8:48)

 

 

فَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ يَتَلَاوَمُونَ

 

 

Then they approached one another, blaming each other. (68:30)

7. إنْفَعَلَ - triliteral verb form

اِفْتَعَلَ triliteral verb form

The form إِنْفَعَلَ is derived by attaching the prefix إنْ to the core triliteral root.

 

 

Structure of إِنْفَعَلَ:

 

 

  • Past tense: إِنْفَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَنْفَعِلُ
  • Imperative: إِنْفَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun: إِنْفِعَالٌ
  • Active participle: مُنْفَعِلٌ

 

 

Points to consider:

 

 

 

فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

 

 

And there gushed forth from it twelve springs (2:60)

 

 

Observations Regarding the إِنْفَعَلَ Form:

 

 

  1. Distinct Meaning:

    • At times, verbs in this pattern deviate significantly from their original triliteral root meanings.
      • طَلَقَ: To divorce
      • إِنْطَلَقَ: To set out/depart
  2. Transition from Transitive to Intransitive:

    • Verbs originally transitive in their basic form can become intransitive when reshaped into the إِنْفَعَلَ form.
      • كَسَرَ: To break (something)
      • إِنْكَسَرَ: To get broken
      • قَطَعَ: To cut (something)
      • إِنْقَطَعَ: To get severed
      • فَجَرَ: To explode
      • إِنْفَجَرَ: To burst open

 

 

This transformation not only enhances the linguistic richness of Arabic but also provides nuanced meanings tailored to various contexts.

Quranic Instances of the إِنْفَعَلَ Verb Pattern

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انفَطَرَتْ

 

 

When the sky breaks apart (82:1)

 

 

فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا

 

 

 and there gushed forth from it twelve springs (7:160)

 

 

مُنفَكِّينَ حَتَّىٰ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَةُ

 

 

were not to be parted [from misbelief] until there came to them clear evidence  (98:1)

 

 

 ثُمَّ ارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ

 

 

Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued. (67:4)

 

 

 انطَلِقُوا إِلَىٰ مَا كُنتُم بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ

 

 

[They will be told], “Proceed to that which you used to deny. (77:29)

8.اِفْتَعَلَ triliteral verb form

إنْفَعَلَ triliteral verb form in arabic | arabic free class

The form اِفْتَعَلَ is derived by adding the prefix اِ and inserting ت after the first root letter ف of the base فَعَلَ.

Table of the اِفْتَعَلَ Pattern:

  • Past tense: اِفَتَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَفْتَعِلُ
  • Imperative: اِفْتَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun: اِفْتِعَالٌ
  • Active participle: مُفْتَعِلٌ
  • Passive participle: مُفْتَعَلٌ
  • Past passive: أُفْتُعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive: يُفْتَعَلُ
  •  

This pattern often carries a causative or “seeking” meaning. For example, seeking knowledge or trying to understand.

 

The اِفْتَعَلَ verb form is constructed by adding the prefix اِ and inserting ت after the first root letter ف from the base فَعَلَ structure.

A. Table of اِفْتَعَلَ

  • Past tense – اِفَتَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense – يَفْتَعِلُ
  • Imperative – اِفْتَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun – اِفْتِعَالٌ
  • Active participle  – مُفْتَعِلٌ
  • Passive participle – مُفْتَعَلٌ
  • Past passive – أُفْتُعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُفْتَعَلُ

1. Selecting or Acting for One's Own Benefit

Examples:

 

  • كَانَ – to weigh, to measure
  • اِكْتَالَ – to receive by measure from

 

  • كَسَبَ – to earn
  • اِكْتَسَبَ – to gain for oneself

 

الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ

 

Who, when they take a measure from people, take in full. (83:2)

2. Occasionally, verbs in this form diverge significantly in meaning from their original triliteral root

Examples:

 

  • كَانَ – to weigh, to measure
  • اِكْتَالَ – to receive by measure from
  • كَسَبَ – to earn
  • اِكْتَسَبَ – to gain for oneself

 

3. The meaning of this form often aligns closely with its original triliteral root

For example:

 

  • بَدَعَ – to originate
  • اِبْتَدَعَ – to invent

 

  • قَرُبَ – to be near/to approach
  • اِقْتَرَبَ – to come close/be nigh

 

اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُهُمْ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ مُّعْرِضُونَ

 

 

[The time of] their account has approached the people, while they are in heedlessness turning away. (21:1)

4. If the first radical ف is one of the emphatic letters (ص, ض, ط, or ظ), then the ت in اِفْتَعَلَ is replaced with "ط"

Examples:

 

  • اِصْطَفَى = اِصْتَفَى – صَفَا – to be or become clear / to chose
  • اِضْطَرَبَ = اِضْتَرَبَ – ضَرَبَ – to strike / to disturbed – confused
  • اِطَّلَعَ = اِطْتَلَعَ – طَلَعَ – to ascend/appear – to look upon/to descend

 

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَىٰ آدَمَ وَنُوحًا

 

 

Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah (33:3)

 

 

قَالَ هَلْ أَنتُم مُّطَّلِعُونَ

 

 

He will say, “Would you [care to] look?” (37:54)

 

 

فَاطَّلَعَ فَرَآهُ فِي سَوَاءِ الْجَحِيمِ

 

 

And he will look and see him in the midst of the Hellfire. (37:55)

 

 

أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا

 

 

Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise? (19:78)

 

 

 إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ

 

 

excepting that to which you are compelled (6:119)

5. If the first radical ف is either د or ز, then the ت in اِفْتَعَلَ is replaced with د

Example:

 

  • زَادَ – to increase
  • اِزْدَادَ – to grow larger

 

  • دَخَلَ – to enter
  • ادَّخَلَ – to enter

6. When the First Radical is ذ, ت in اِفْتَعَلَ Transforms to د with ذ Assimilation

For example:

 

  • ذَكَرَ – to mention
  • اِدَّكَرَ – اِدْدَكَرَ – to remember

 

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

 

 

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember? (54:17)

7. When the Initial Radical is Hamza, it Transforms to ت in the Form اِفْتَعَلَ

For example:

 

 

  • اِتَّخَذَ = اِئْتَخَذَ – أَخَذَ – to take

 

مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ

 

 

The example of those who take allies other than Allah (29:41)

8. Transformation of Initial Weak Letter و to ت in the Form اِفْتَعَلَ: An Illustration

Transformation of the Verb “وَصَلَ” to “اِتَّصَلَ”

 

The verb “وَصَلَ” undergoes a transformation when the weak letter و comes in place of the first radical ف. This results in the verb form “اِوْتَصَلَ”, which further simplifies to “اِتَّصَلَ”, signifying the actions of communication or connection.

 

Conjugation Table for اِتَّصَلَ (to communicate, to connect):

 

  • Past tense: اِتَّصَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَتَّصِلُ
  • Imperative: اِتَّصِلْ
  • Verbal noun: اِتِّصَالٌ
  • Active participle: مُتَّصِلٌ
  • Passive participle: مُتَّصَلٌ
  • Past passive: أُتُّصِلَ
  • Imperfect passive: يُتَّصَلُ

9. Transformation of the Verb "لَقِيَ" to "اِلْتَقَى" with "ى" as the First Radical

Table of اِلْتَقَى, to meet:

 

  • Past tense – اِلْتَقَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَلْتَقِي
  • Imperative – اِلْتَقِ
  • Verbal noun – اِلْتِقَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُلْتَقٍ
  • Passive participle – مُلْتَقًى
  • Past passive – أُلْتُقِيَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُلْتَقَى

 

يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ 

 

 

the day the two armies met (3:155)

10. Transformation of the Doubly Weak Verb "وَقَى" to "اِتَّقَى" with Changes in "و" and "ى"

Table of اِتَّقَى, to save oneself:

 

 

  • Past tense – اِتَّقَى
  • Imperfect tense – يَتَّقِي
  • Imperative – اِتَّقِ
  • Verbal noun – اِتَّقَاءٌ
  • Active participle  – مُتَّقٍ
  • Passive participle – مُتَّقَى
  • Past passive – أُتَّقِيَ
  • Imperfect passive – يُتَّقَى

 

لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

 

 

that you may become righteous (2:21)

11. Illustrations of the "اِفْتَعَلَ" Verb Form in the Holy Quran

 وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاءُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ

 

 

And caused the earth to burst with springs, and the waters met for a matter already predestined. (54:12)

 

 

وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِي أَنفُسُكُمْ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَدَّعُونَ

 

 

 

And you will have therein whatever your souls desire, and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish] (41:31)

 

 

 وَلَحْمِ طَيْرٍ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ

 

 

 

And the meat of fowl, from whatever they desire. (56:21)

 

 

وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ

 

 

And not equal are the good deed and the bad (41:34)

 

 

وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ

 

 

and they cannot intercede except on behalf of one whom He approves (21:28)

 

 

وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ

 

 

And [there are] others who have acknowledged their sins. (9:102)

 

 

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا

 

 

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. (3:103)

 

 

لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ

 

 

 It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned. (2:286)

9. اِفْعَلَّ triliteral verb form

اِفْعَلَّ triliteral verb form

Verb Form “اِفْعَلَّ”: Expressing Colors and Defects

 

The verb form “اِفْعَلَّ” is crafted by prefixing “اِ” and doubling the ل of the root. This unique form is primarily utilized to convey colors and defects.

 

Structure of اِفْعَلَّ:

 

  • Past tense: اِفَتَعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَفْتَعِلُ
  • Imperative: اِفْتَعِلْ
  • Verbal noun: اِفْتِعَالٌ
  • Active participle: مُفْتَعِلٌ

 

Given that this verb form is inherently intransitive (فِعْلُ اللَّازِم), it doesn’t accommodate a passive participle or passive voice.

 

Illustrations:

 

  • اِبْيَضَّ: to turn white
  • اِسْوَدَّ: to turn black
  • اِصْفَرَّ: to turn yellow
  • اِخْضَرَّ: to turn green

 

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْوَدَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ 

 

 

As for those whose faces turn black, [to them it will be said] (3:106)

 

 

وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ابْيَضَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ

 

 

But as for those whose faces will turn white,  (3:107)

 

 

وَابْيَضَّتْ عَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْحُزْنِ

 

 

and his eyes became white from grief (12:84)

 

10. اِسْتَفْعَلَ triliteral verb form

اِسْتَفْعَلَ triliteral verb form | Arabic free course

The Verb Form "اِسْتَفْعَلَ": Characteristics and Usage

The verb form “اِسْتَفْعَلَ” derives from the root form “فَعَلَ” with the addition of the prefix “اِسْتَ”.

 

Structure of اِسْتَفْعَلَ:

 

  • Past tense: اِسْتَفعَلَ
  • Imperfect tense: يَسْتَفْعِلُ
  • Imperative: اِسْتَفْعِلْ
  • Verbal noun: اِسْتِفْعَالٌ
  • Active participle: مُسْتَفْعِلٌ
  • Passive participle: مُسْتَفْعَلٌ
  • Past passive: أُسْتَفْعِلَ
  • Imperfect passive: يَسْتَفْعَلُ

 

Key Features:

 

  1. Seeking or Asking: This form often denotes the act of seeking or requesting the essence of the root verb.

    • غَفَرَ: to forgive → اِسْتَغْفَرَ: to ask for forgiveness
    • أَذِنَ: to allow → اِسْتَاْذَنَ: to seek permission
    • عَلِمَ: to know → اِسْتَعْلَمَ: to inquire
    • نَصَرَ: to assist → اِسْتَنْصَرَ: to seek aid
  2. Perceptive Quality: It can express a perceived quality.

    • عَظُمَ: to be great → اِسْتَعْظَمَ: to consider great
    • كَرُمَ: to be noble → اِسْتَكْرَمَ: to perceive as noble
    • حَسُنَ: to be good → اِسْتَحْسُنَ: to see as good
  3. Reflective of اِفْعلَّ: This form acts reflexively in relation to “اِفْعلَّ”.

    • أَخْبَرَ: to inform → اِسْتَخْبَرَ: to seek information
    • أَسْلَمَ: to submit → اِسْتَسْلَمَ: to surrender
  4. Variation with ‘ى’: When ‘ى’ replaces the ‘ل’, the pattern adjusts.

    • Example: اسْتَفْتَى (to seek a verdict)
      • Past tense: اِسْتَفْتَى
      • Imperfect tense: يَسْتَفْتِى
      • Imperative: اِسْتَفْتِ
      • Verbal noun: اِسْتِفْتَاءٌ
      • Active participle: مُسْتَفْتٍ
      • Passive participle: مُسْتَفْتًى
      • Past passive: أُسْتُفْتِيَ
      • Imperfect passive: يُسْتَفْتَى

 

This form provides a rich layer of expression and depth to the Arabic language, allowing for intricate nuances and connotations.

Usage of the اِسْتَفْعَلَ Verb Form in the Holy Quran: Examples and Analysis

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

 

 

It is You we worship and You we ask for help. (1:5)

 

 

 إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ

 

 

Only those who hear will respond (3:36)

 

 

اسْتَجِيبُوا لِرَبِّكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَّا مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّـهِ

 

 

Respond to your Lord before a Day comes from Allah of which there is no repelling (42:47)

 

 

فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ 

 

 

 So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided. (2:186)

 

 

 فَإِن لَّمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ

 

 

But if they do not respond to you (28:50)

 

 

لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ 

 

 

I could have acquired much wealth (7:188)

 

 

وَاسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا اسْتِكْبَارًا

 

 

covered themselves with their garments, persisted, and were arrogant with [great] arrogance. (71:7)

 

 

وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدتُّهُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ فَاسْتَعْصَمَ

 

 

And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly refused (12:32)

أَفَلَا يَتُوبُونَ إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَهُ

So will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? (5:74)

وَالْمُسْتَغْفِرِينَ بِالْأَسْحَارِ

and those who seek forgiveness before dawn. (3:17)

 

11. إِفْعَالَّ triliteral verb form

اِفْعَلَّ triliteral verb form

Formation and Usage of the Verb Pattern إِفْعَالَّ

The verb pattern إِفْعَالَّ is derived by adding the prefix إِ, inserting an alif (ا) between the second (ع) and third (ل) radicals, and then doubling the third radical (ل). This specific pattern typically emphasizes the intensity of a color.

 

Table of Conjugation for إِفْعَالَّ:

 

  • Past tense: إِفْعَالَّ
  • Imperfect tense: يَفْعَالُّ
  • Imperative: إِفْعَالِلْ
  • Verbal noun: إِفْعِيْلالٌ
  • Active participle: مُفْعَالٌّ

 

Illustration:

 

For the root د-ه-م (indicating a dark hue), the verb in this form becomes: إِدْهَامَّ, which signifies “to become intensely dark green or black.

Usage of the إِفْعَالَّ Verb Form in the Holy Quran: Examples and Analysis

مُدْهَامَّتَانِ

 

 

Dark green [in color]. (55:64)

 

Conclusion

This lesson on Arabic nuances concludes here. Insha’Allah, our subsequent session will delve into the four-lettered verbs in Arabic.

 

Al-dirassa Institute invites you on a linguistic journey with our expert teachers to master the Arabic language. Should you wish to further your studies, we welcome your inquiries.

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