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Al isti’adha and al basmala tajweed rules

Understanding Al Isti’adha and Al Basmala: An In-depth Exploration

1. Delving into Al Isti'adha: Its Significance and Usage

Allah instructs us that before we embark on reciting His Sacred Book, we should seek His refuge against the accursed Satan, ensuring that we are under His divine guidance and protection. As expressed in His esteemed Book:

 

 

 

 

 فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّـهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

 

 

So when you recite the Qur’an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy]. (16-98)

 

 

 

This verse emphasizes the significance of seeking Allah’s refuge when delving into the recitation of the Holy Qur’an. To invoke this protection from the accursed Satan, one uses the following formula:

 

 

أَعُوذُ بِاللَّـهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

 

 

“I seek refuge with Allah against satan the accursed”

 

 

Scholars universally agree upon the importance of this formulation when one initiates the recitation of the Qur’an. Most experts in the field of qiraa deem it as ‘mustahabb’ (recommended). However, a few scholars regard it as obligatory. One can choose to pause after reciting al isti’adha or continue seamlessly into the next part, be it the basmala or another verse from the Holy Qur’an. Both methods are valid and authentic, but it is preferable to connect al isti’adha with the subsequent verse.

 

 

Based on the context, al isti’adha may be recited either audibly or in a subdued tone. Reciting al isti’adha audibly is recommended in two scenarios:

 

  1. When the recitation is intended to be heard by others.
  2. Within a study group, if the reciter is the first to begin reading, they should pronounce it out loud. Subsequent readers in the group can then omit it, as the initial recitation covers them.

A. Reciting al isti’adha quietly is recommended in the following four scenarios:

Reciting al isti’adha quietly is practiced in the following situations:

 

  1. During prayers, whether recited audibly or silently.
  2. When an individual is quietly reciting the Holy Qur’an in public settings, such as on a train.
  3. In a group reading session, when a person isn’t the first to recite, ensuring the flow of the group’s recitation remains uninterrupted.
  4. During solo recitation of the Holy Qur’an.

 

Additional Pointers:

 

  • If one intends to recite a section from the middle of a sura, it’s appropriate to begin with the al-‘isti’adha.
  • However, it’s advisable not to immediately follow al-‘isti’adha with a verse if doing so might distort the verse’s meaning.

 

For instance: Considering Sura Al-Baqara verse 255 (ayat al-kursiy), it begins with:

 

 اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ

 

 

Directly connecting the word الرَّحِيْمِ with the name of Allah اللَّـهُ can lead to a misinterpretation. Therefore, Imam Ash-Shâtibi advised reciting al-basmala following al-‘isti’adha to ensure clarity and proper understanding.

B. Various Methods of Connecting Al 'Isti'adha with the Basmala

Complete Connection

Seamless Integration: Linking al-‘isti’adha, basmala, and the start of a surah without interruption. This approach is considered valid. For instance, using Surah Al Ikhlas verse 1:

 

al isti'adah | full injunction

 

Complete separation

We pause briefly after reciting al isti’adha and then after the basmala, before commencing with the sura. This method is the most prevalent.

 

Example:

al 'isti'adha - complete separation

al 'isti'adha and the basmala Connection

ou seamlessly connect al isti’adha with the basmala, pause momentarily, and then initiate the sura’s recitation.

Example:

 

al 'isti'adha and the basmala  bond  

Pausing after Al 'Isti'adha and Linking the Basmala with the Surah's Opening Verse

We recite Al ‘Isti’adha and pause, then continue by joining the Basmala with the starting verse of the Surah.

 

Example:

 

al isti'adha  

2. Understanding Al-Basmala (البَسْمَلَة): Its Significance and Usage

The Basmala refers to the utterance of:

 

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 

 

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

 

 

It is unanimously agreed upon that it constitutes a verse in Surah An-Naml, specifically verse 30:

 

 

إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 

 

 

Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it reads: ‘In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, (27:30)

 

The status of the basmala at the start of each sura sparks varied opinions among scholars and Qur’an reciters. The Kufa and Mecca readers, along with Imam Ach-Châfi’i, perceive it as a distinct verse for every sura.

 

In contrast, the reciters from Medina, Basra, and Sham, supported by Imam Malik, see it not as a stand-alone verse but as a separator between suras, serving as a blessing at each sura’s commencement.

 

Imam Hafs recognizes the basmala of each sura as a distinct verse. Several reciters, including Ibn Kathir, Asim, Al-Kasahi, Abu Jafar, Qalun, and Warsh (via the Asbahany route), intone the basmala between two suras, with the exception of the transition between suras Al-Anfal and At-Tawbah.

 

On the other hand, Hamza transitions between two suras without uttering the basmala. Khalaf is known to have practiced this as well, although it’s noted that at times, he made a subtle pause—reading the final verse of one sura and the initial verse of the next without a basmala and without breaking his breath.

 

Other reciters, namely Abu Amru, Ibn Amr, Yaqub, and Warsh (following the Al-Azraq route), demonstrated three approaches:

 

  1. Pronouncing the basmala between suras.
  2. Maintaining silence without the basmala.
  3. Merging two suras without the basmala.

 

Notably, all reciters unanimously agree that there’s no basmala between sura barâa, also known as At-Tawbah, and its preceding sura.

 

Variations in Reading the Basmala Between Two Suras: The Hafs Perspective

Complete Connection

Consecutively Reading the End of One Sura to the Beginning of the Next via the Basmala Without Pause.”

 

Example from Sura Al Falaq (verse 5) to Sura An Nas (verse 1):

the coplete tie of the basmala

Complete separation

Pausing After Both Al Isti’adha and the Basmala Before Commencing the Sura.

 

Example illustrating this common practice:

 

basmala - complete separation

 

Pausing After the Final Verse Before Continuing

Concluding One Sura and Seamlessly Transitioning to the Next with Basmala.

 

Example:

basmala - break on the last verse

The Prohibition of Linking the Final Verse with the Basmala Followed by a Pause

It is not permissible to connect the final verse of a sura with the basmala and then pause before commencing the first verse of the subsequent sura. This is because the basmala signifies the commencement of a sura, not its conclusion.

 

 

Example:

interndiction tie of the basmala

 

Key Points:

 

  • Al-basmala is advised to be recited at the start of every sura with the exception of Sura At-Tawbah.
  • If a reader starts reading from a point within a sura, the decision to recite al-basmala is discretionary.
  • Should a reader choose to pair the reading of al-basmala with a verse mid-sura, it’s crucial to ensure clarity of meaning, similar to the considerations given for al-‘isti`adha.

Closing Remarks

Our lesson on tajweed rules has come to a conclusion. Insha’Allah, our next session will delve into the ghunna of the letters Noon and Meem.

 

At Al-dirassa Institute, we provide a streamlined approach to mastering tajweed rules with the guidance of proficient instructors. If you’re keen on furthering your knowledge, please reach out to us.

 

 

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