the conditional sentences | arabic free course

Introduction to the conditional sentences – الْجُمَلُ الشَّرْطِيَّةُ



There are two parts in a conditional sentence: the condition or protasis – فِعْلُ الشَّرْطِ and apodosis – جَوَابُ الشَّرْطِ. Sometimes, the protasis and the apodosis have the verb in the perfect or jussive mood in a verbal sentence.



 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّـهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ 



O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant your feet firmly. (47:7)


  A conditional sentence is introduced by one of the following particles.  


  • إِنْ – if
  • إذَا – when
  • لَوْ – if
  • مَنْ – who/ whom / whoever
  • مَهْمَا – whatever
  • أَيُّ – which / whichever
  • لَمَّا – when
  • مَا – what
  • أَيْنَ – where


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1. إنْ (if) is used to begin the sentence



وَإِن تَعُودُوا نَعُدْ



 but if you return [to war], We will return (8:19)


  When إِنْ is preceded by لَ, it means indeed if / certainly if.  


لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا 



 If you do not desist, I will surely stone you, so avoid me a prolonged time.” (19:46)



وَلَئِن لَّمْ يَفْعَلْ مَا آمُرُهُ لَيُسْجَنَنَّ وَلَيَكُونًا مِّنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ



 and if he will not do what I order him, he will surely be imprisoned and will be of those debased.” (12:32)


Note: إِنْ, when followed by إلَّا, is merely a negative particle.  


إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ 



It is not, but a revelation revealed, (53:4)



2. إِنْ and إِذَا are said to be likely or possible conditions



In the likely conditional sentence, the protasis – فِعْلُ الشَّرْطِ and apodosis – جَوَابُ الشَّرْطِ can be the perfect or the jussive.



فَإِذَا جَاءَ الْخَوْفُ رَأَيْتَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ



 And when fear comes, you see them looking at you (33:19)



فَإِذَا ذَهَبَ الْخَوْفُ سَلَقُوكُم بِأَلْسِنَةٍ 



But when fear departs, they lash you with sharp tongues, indisposed toward [any] good.  (33:19)



3. The unlikely condition is introduced by the conjunction لَوْ



وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً



And if your Lord had willed, He could have made humanity one community (11:118)



 لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّـهِ



If We had sent down this Qur’an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and coming apart from fear of Allah (59:21)



  An unlikely negative condition is often expressed by لَوْ لَا (if not/had not):  


وَلَوْلَا أَن كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجَلَاءَ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا



And if not that Allah had decreed for them evacuation, He would have punished them in [this] world (59:3)



وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّـهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ



And if it were not for Allah checking [some] people using others (2:251)



Examples of the conditional sentences used in the Holy Quran



وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ



But if you want to replace one wife (4:20)



وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَـٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّـهِ



and if evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say, “All [things] are from Allah.” (7:78)



فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ 



So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, (99:7)



وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ



And whoever disbelieves in it – it is they who are the losers. (2:121)



 مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ 



Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it (4:123)



فَلَمَّا جَهَّزَهُم بِجَهَازِهِمْ 



So when he had furnished them with their supplies (12:70)



You have now completed this Arabic lesson. The next one will be insha’Allah about Inna and its sisters in Arabic.


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