The noun in Arabic




The nouns اَلْإِسْمُ are divided into two kinds:



النَّكِرَةُ – Indefinite



المَعْرِفَةُ – definite




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Definite nouns – الأَسْماءُ المَعْرِفَة


Definite nouns are proper names given to a certain person, place, or object.





نُوْحٌ – Noah



حَامِدٌ – Hamid



أَحْمَدُ – Ahmed



إِبْراهِيْمُ – Ibrahim


Important characteristics of a noun



بَيْتٌ – a house



كُرْسِيٌّ – a chair



قَلَمٌ – a pen



كِتَابٌ – un crayon



رَسُولٌ – un messager


2. There are two conditions in which the nunnation (tanween) is dropper:


  • The indefinite noun can be changed to definite by adding the prefix




اَلْ +بِنْتٌ = اَلْبِنْتُ 

The + girl = The girl



اَلْ + نَبَأٌ = النَّبَأُ

The + news = The news



اَلْ + فَاكِهَةٌ = اَلْفَاكِهَةُ 

The + fruit = The fruit



اَلْ + مَالِكٌ = اَلْمَالِكُ

The + ruler = The ruler



اِلْ + فِضَّةٌ = اَلفِضَّةُ 

The + silver = The silver



اَلْ + يَوْمٌ = اَلْيَوْمُ 

The + day = The day


نَارٌ + اَللَّهُ = نَارُ اللَّهِ

Fire + Allah = Fire of Allah


رَسُولٌ + اَللّهُ = رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ

 Messenger + Allah = Messenger of Allah


أَصْحَابٌ + اَلْقُبُورُ = أَصْحَابُ الْقُبُورِ

People + the grave = People of the grave


كِتَابٌ + كُمْ = كِتَابُكُم

Book  + you = Your book (plural)


بَيْتٌ + كَ = بَيْتُكَ

House + your = Your house (singular)

The Noun cases in Arabic



Nominative case – اَلْمَرْفُوع / حَالَةُ الرَّفْعِ



The nominative case is when the noun is the subject (doer of the verb) of the sentence, it will bear dammah :


or tanween dammah :


The noun with dammah will be in the nominative case.





قَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ

Noah Said (71:21)



وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ

And the moon was split (54:1)


وَجَاءَتْ سَيَّارَةٌAnd a caravan came (12:19)



Accusative case – حَالَةُ النَّصَبِ/الْمَنْصُوبُ


The accusative case is when the noun is the object of the sentence, it will bear fatha:

or tanwin fatha:

Here the noun will be in the accusative case.




جَعَلَ اللَّـهُ الْكَعْبَةَ

Allah has made the Kaaba (5:97)


 وَضَرَبَ اللَّـهُ مَثَلًا

And Allah sets forth an example (66:11)


فَبَعَثَ اللَّـهُ غُرَابًا

“Then Allah sent a crow” (5:31)

Genitive case – الْمَجْرُورُ / حَالَةُ الْجارِّ


Genitive case: if a preposition precedes the noun, it will bear kasrah:

or tanween kasrah:

Here the noun will be in the genitive case.



مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

“From the evil of that which He has created” (113:2)


فَهُوَ فِي عِيشَةٍ رَّاضِيَةٍ 

“then he will lead a life of pleasure” (101:7)


عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

“On the straight path” (36:4)



Exceptions nouns


Some nouns such as:


زَيْنَبُ, مَرْيَمُ, فِرْعَوْنُ, أَحْمَدُ, إِبْرَاهِيممُ

are exceptions to the rule and therefore do not have nunnation (tanween) nor kasrah in the genitive case:

The genitive case will be denoted by fatha:



اذْهَبْ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ

Go to Fir’awn; he has certainly rebelled” (79:17)


وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ

“And mention in the book (about) Maryam.” (19:16)

Usually, non-Arabic names and names with more than 3 letters do not bear nunnation (tanween).


Also, nouns used as adjectives denoting colors do not bear nunnation (tanween).




أَحْضَرُ  – green



أَسْوَدُ – black


أَصْفَرُ – yellow


أَحْمَرُ – red


أَبْيَضُ – white


الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا 

“He it is who made the fire for you from the green trees” (36:80)



حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ

“You can distinguish the white thread” (2:187)



This Arabic lesson is now finished. The next one will be insha’Allah about the dual in Arabic.


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